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Serbia

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Country summary

Capital

Belgrade (Beograd)

Borders

Bosnia and Herzegovina 302 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia 241 km, Hungary 151 km, Kosovo 352 km, Macedonia 62 km, Montenegro 124 km, Romania 476 km

Government type

republic

Population

7,379,339[1]

Population growth

-0.468% (2010 est.)[1]

Life expectancy

73.9 years[1]

Unemployment

16.6% (October 2009 est.)[1]

Index of Economic Freedom

104[2]

Corruption Perceptions Index

83[3]

Doing Business ranking

88[4]


The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Various paramilitary bands resisted Nazi Germany's occupation and division of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945, but fought each other and ethnic opponents as much as the invaders. The military and political movement headed by Josip "TITO" Broz (Partisans) took full control of Yugoslavia when German and Croatian separatist forces were defeated in 1945. Although Communist, TITO's new government and his successors (he died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In 1989, Slobodan MILOSEVIC became president of the Republic of Serbia and his ultranationalist calls for Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines. In 1991, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia declared independence, followed by Bosnia in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in April 1992 and under MILOSEVIC's leadership, Serbia led various military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia." These actions led to Yugoslavia being ousted from the UN in 1992, but Serbia continued its - ultimately unsuccessful - campaign until signing the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995. MILOSEVIC kept tight control over Serbia and eventually became president of the FRY in 1997. In 1998, an ethnic Albanian insurgency in the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosovo provoked a Serbian counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo. The MILOSEVIC government's rejection of a proposed international settlement led to NATO's bombing of Serbia in the spring of 1999 and to the eventual withdrawal of Serbian military and police forces from Kosovo in June 1999. UNSC Resolution 1244 in June 1999 authorized the stationing of a NATO-led force (KFOR) in Kosovo to provide a safe and secure environment for the region's ethnic communities, created a UN interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) to foster self-governing institutions, and reserved the issue of Kosovo's final status for an unspecified date in the future. FRY elections in September 2000 led to the ouster of MILOSEVIC, and in December 2000 a broad coalition of democratic reformist parties known as DOS (the Democratic Opposition of Serbia) was elected to parliament. DOS arrested MILOSEVIC in 2001 and sent him to be tried in The Hague for crimes against humanity. (MILOSEVIC died in March 2006 before the completion of his trial.) In 2001, the country's suspension from the UN was lifted. In 2003, the FRY became Serbia and Montenegro, a loose federation of the two republics with a federal level parliament. Widespread violence predominantly targeting ethnic Serbs in Kosovo in March 2004 caused the international community to open negotiations on the future status of Kosovo in January 2006. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right to secede from the federation and - following a successful referendum - it declared itself an independent nation on 3 June 2006. Two days later, Serbia declared that it was the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro. A new Serbian constitution was approved in October 2006 and adopted the following month. In February 2008, after nearly two years of inconclusive negotiations, the UNMIK-administered province of Kosovo declared itself independent of Serbia - an action Serbia was powerless to stop, but which it refuses to recognize.[1]

Economical characteristicsEdit

  • Currency: Serbian dinar (ISO code: RSD)
  • Central bank discount rate: 9.5% (31 December 2009)[1]
  • Commercial banks lending rate: 11.78% (31 December 2009)[1]
  • Stock of money (M1): $3.69 billion (31 December 2009)[1]
  • Quasi money (with M1 makes M2): $14.11 billion (31 December 2009)[1]


StatisticsEdit

Statistic / Year 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
GDP (USD)[5]
Govt. debt (% of GDP)[6]
Govt. revenue (% of GDP)[7]
Govt. expenses (% of GDP)[8]
Debt to revenue (years)

ReferencesEdit

Note: statistical data was rounded. Different sources may use different methodologies for their estimates. Debt to revenue is calculated by dividing the two variables from their original ('unrounded') values. It represents how long it would a government take to repay its entire debt if it used its whole revenue for this purpose.

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 CIA - The World Facebook. "Serbia", from The World Facebook. Referenced 2010-09-29.
  2. Heritage Foundation. "Serbia", Economic Freedom Score. A lower ranking is better; but please be careful when comparing between different countries or years. Referenced 2010-09-29.
  3. Transparency International. "Serbia", Corruption Perceptions Index 2009. A lower ranking is better; but please note that the numbers cannot be compared between countries or years due to different methodology. Referenced 2010-09-29.
  4. Doing Business. "Serbia", Doing Business 2010 (part of The World Bank Group). A lower ranking is better; but please be careful when comparing between different countries or years. Referenced 2010-09-29.
  5. World Bank. "Serbia: GDP", from World Bank Data. Referenced 2010-09-29.
  6. World Bank. "Serbia: government debt", from World Bank Data. Referenced 2010-09-29.
  7. World Bank. "Serbia: government revenue", from World Bank Data. Referenced 2010-09-29.
  8. World Bank. "Serbia: government expenses", from World Bank Data. Referenced 2010-09-29.

External linksEdit

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