Nicole Oresme, also known as Nicholas Oresme, Nicolas Oresme, or Nicolas d'Oresme (1323-1382) was an influential philosopher and thinker of the later Middle Ages. He was an economist, mathematician, physicist, astronomer, philosopher, psychologist, musicologist, theologian and Bishop of Lisieux, a competent translator, counselor of King Charles V of France, one of the principal founders and popularizers of modern sciences.

In economics is he known for one of the first economic treatises on inflation, the Treatise on the Origin, Nature, Law, and Alterations of Monies ("De origine, natura, jure et mutationibus monetarum"). The most adequate modern rendering of the title would be "Treatise on Inflation."

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