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Country summary





Government type



20,653,556 (July 2010 est.)[1]

Population growth

3% (2010 est.)[1]

Life expectancy

62.89 years[1]



Index of Economic Freedom


Corruption Perceptions Index


Doing Business ranking


Formerly an independent kingdom, Madagascar became a French colony in 1896 but regained independence in 1960. During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held ending 17 years of single-party rule. In 1997, in the second presidential race, Didier RATSIRAKA, the leader during the 1970s and 1980s, was returned to the presidency. The 2001 presidential election was contested between the followers of Didier RATSIRAKA and Marc RAVALOMANANA, nearly causing secession of half of the country. In April 2002, the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner. RAVALOMANANA achieved a second term following a landslide victory in the generally free and fair presidential elections of 2006. In early 2009, protests over increasing restrictions on opposition press and activities resulted in RAVALOMANANA stepping down and the presidency was conferred to the mayor of Antananarivo, Andry RAJOELINA. Following negotiations in July and August of 2009, a power-sharing agreement with a 15-month transitional period was established, but has not yet been implemented.[1]

Economical characteristicsEdit

  • Currency: Malagasy ariary (ISO code: MGA)
  • Central bank discount rate: NA%[1]
  • Commercial banks lending rate: 45% (31 December 2009 )[1]
  • Stock of money (M1): $1.216 billion (31 December 2008)[1]
  • Quasi money (with M1 makes M2): $667.2 million (31 December 2008)[1]


Statistic / Year 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
GDP (million USD)[5] 3 717 3 878 4 529 4 397 5 474 4 364 5 039 5 515 7 343 9 463
Govt. debt (% of GDP)[6] 111.879 96.768
Govt. revenue (% of GDP)[7] 11.690 10.150 7.999 10.694 12.086 10.955 11.655 11.890
Govt. expenses (% of GDP)[8] 10.620 10.293 9.447 11.223 12.600 11.045 11.599 11.236
Debt to revenue (years) 9.570 9.534


Note: statistical data was rounded. Different sources may use different methodologies for their estimates. Debt to revenue is calculated by dividing the two variables from their original ('unrounded') values. It represents how long it would a government take to repay its entire debt if it used its whole revenue for this purpose.

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 CIA - The World Facebook. "Madagascar", from The World Facebook. Referenced 2010-10-04.
  2. Heritage Foundation. "Madagascar", Economic Freedom Score. A lower ranking is better; but please be careful when comparing between different countries or years. Referenced 2010-10-04.
  3. Transparency International. "Madagascar", Corruption Perceptions Index 2009. A lower ranking is better; but please note that the numbers cannot be compared between countries or years due to different methodology. Referenced 2010-10-04.
  4. Doing Business. "Madagascar", Doing Business 2010 (part of The World Bank Group). A lower ranking is better; but please be careful when comparing between different countries or years. Referenced 2010-10-04.
  5. World Bank. "Madagascar: GDP", from World Bank Data. Referenced 2010-10-04.
  6. World Bank. "Madagascar: government debt", from World Bank Data. Referenced 2010-10-04.
  7. World Bank. "Madagascar: government revenue", from World Bank Data. Referenced 2010-10-04.
  8. World Bank. "Madagascar: government expenses", from World Bank Data. Referenced 2010-10-04.

External linksEdit

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