FANDOM


Country summary

Capital

Astana

Borders

China 1,533 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,224 km, Russia 6,846 km, Turkmenistan 379 km, Uzbekistan 2,203 km

Government type

republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch

Population

15,399,437 (July 2010 est.)[1]

Population growth

0.392% (2010 est.)[1]

Life expectancy

67.87 years[1]

Unemployment

6.3% (2009 est.)[1]

Index of Economic Freedom

82[2]

Corruption Perceptions Index

120[3]

Doing Business ranking

63[4]


Native Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated into the region in the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-Kazakhs to outnumber natives. Independence in 1991 caused many of these newcomers to emigrate. Kazakhstan's economy is larger than those of all the other Central Asian states combined largely due to the country's vast natural resources and a recent history of political stability. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity; expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets; achieving a sustainable economic growth; diversifying the economy outside the oil, gas, and mining sectors; enhancing Kazakhstan's competitiveness; and strengthening relations with neighboring states and other foreign powers.[1]

Economical characteristicsEdit

  • Currency: Tenge (ISO code: KZT)
  • Central bank discount rate: 7% (31 December 2009)[1]
  • Commercial banks lending rate: NA%[1]
  • Stock of money (M1): $16.12 billion (31 December 2008)[1]
  • Quasi money (with M1 makes M2): $35.76 billion (31 December 2008)[1]


StatisticsEdit

Statistic / Year 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
GDP (million USD)[5] 16 871 18 292 22 153 24 637 30 834 43 152 57 124 81 004 104 853 133 442
Govt. debt (% of GDP)[6] 26.626 21.618 17.657 15.356 13.218 7.046 5.937 5.322 6.327
Govt. revenue (% of GDP)[7] 8.565 11.326 11.443 13.234 13.936 15.145 21.316 16.796 13.977 13.351
Govt. expenses (% of GDP)[8] 14.182 13.722 13.568 12.691 13.887 14.071 18.216 14.622 14.148 14.754
Debt to revenue (years) 3.109 1.909 1.543 1.160 0.948 0.331 0.354 0.381 0.474

ReferencesEdit

Note: statistical data was rounded. Different sources may use different methodologies for their estimates. Debt to revenue is calculated by dividing the two variables from their original ('unrounded') values. It represents how long it would a government take to repay its entire debt if it used its whole revenue for this purpose.

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 CIA - The World Facebook. "Kazakhstan", from The World Facebook. Referenced 2010-09-30.
  2. Heritage Foundation. "Kazakhstan", Economic Freedom Score. A lower ranking is better; but please be careful when comparing between different countries or years. Referenced 2010-09-30.
  3. Transparency International. "Kazakhstan", Corruption Perceptions Index 2009. A lower ranking is better; but please note that the numbers cannot be compared between countries or years due to different methodology. Referenced 2010-09-30.
  4. Doing Business. "Kazakhstan", Doing Business 2010 (part of The World Bank Group). A lower ranking is better; but please be careful when comparing between different countries or years. Referenced 2010-09-30.
  5. World Bank. "Kazakhstan: GDP", from World Bank Data. Referenced 2010-09-30.
  6. World Bank. "Kazakhstan: government debt", from World Bank Data. Referenced 2010-09-30.
  7. World Bank. "Kazakhstan: government revenue", from World Bank Data. Referenced 2010-09-30.
  8. World Bank. "Kazakhstan: government expenses", from World Bank Data. Referenced 2010-09-30.

External linksEdit

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